Retention Appliances –A Review

Rami M.S Reddy, Suma S, Chandrashekar BR, Ankur Chaukse


In Orthodontics the stability of the achieved result remains a fundamental issue of concern and debate. Usually a retention phase is required after active Orthodontic tooth movement to hold teeth in its ideal aesthetic and functional relation and prevent the teeth to return to their former position. Keeping in mind the importance of Retention in orthodontic treatment, this article makes an attempt to refresh our knowledge on retainers by exploring the literature.




Burke S, Silveira A, Goldsmith L, Yancey J, Van Stewart A, Scarfe W. A meta-analysis of mandibular intercanine width in treatment and postretention. Angle Orthodontist1998;68:53-60.

Blake M, Bibby K. Retention and stability: a review of the literature. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1998; 114(3):299-306.

Melrose C, Millett D. Toward a perspective on orthodontic retention? American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1998; 113(5):507-14.

Proffit W, Fields H, Sarver D. Contemporary orthodontics: Mosby Inc; 2007.

Knierim R. Invisible lower cuspid to cuspid retainer. Angle Orthod1973;43:218-9.

Hoffman. CS. Technic clinic. A back-action arch. J Clin Orthod1973 Aug;7(8):520-1.

Sheridan J, LeDoux W, McMinn R. Essix retainers: fabrication and supervision for permanent retention. Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO1993;27(1):37-45.

Zachrisson B. Third-generation mandibular bonded lingual 3-3 retainer. Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO1995;29(1):39-48.

Bearn D. Bonded orthodontic retainers: a review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics1995;108(2):207-13.

Owen 3rd A. 4-4 Crozat retainer. Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO1985;19(3):194-7.

Christie TE. Molar-to-molar mandibular retainer. J Clin Orthod1985 Jul;19(7):500-4.

Diamond M. Resin fiberglass bonded retainer. Journal of clinical orthodontics: JCO1987;21(3):182-3.

Fernandez Sanchez J, Pernia Ramirez I, Martin Alonso J. Osamu active retainer for correction of mild relapse. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 1998; 32:26-8.

Linden F. The Van der Linden Retainer. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics2003;37(5):260-7.

Kaplan H. The logic of modern retention procedures. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics1988;93(4):325-40.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd