Promoting oral health of preschool children using non-dental personnel in rural Sri Lanka
Background: The limited availability of oral health care services and the lack of knowledge on oral health in the population have been documented as contributing factors for poor oral health among preschool children. Aims and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of an oral health education intervention, in a Sri Lankan rural setting. The objective was to improve the oral health status among preschool children. Materials and Methods: Mothers and their preschool children who were permanent residents of the area were considered eligible. Two hundred and nineteen mother/child pairs were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. WHO criteria for detecting dental caries and treatment need were used along with modifications suggested by the National Institute for Dental Research. Loe’s plaque index was used on modified Ramfjord teeth to determine the oral hygiene status of preschool children. Mothers were educated on common oral health problems and causes among preschool children. Preventive strategies and available oral health care services were introduced. Their knowledge of healthy food habits, of oral hygiene practices and of opportunities for self-referrals to oral health care facilities was enhanced during the intervention. Pre- and Post-Intervention clinical assessments were performed on children. Data were collected at baseline and 6 months after the intervention. Results: The prevalence of caries was reduced from a mean DMFT of 3.60 to 3.00 (P<0.005) six months after the intervention. The major change was a reduction in the number of non-cavitated lesions, where the mean was lowered to 1.83 from 2.11 (P=0.04). Preschool children not in need of treatment for dental caries increased to more than half (69%) of the sample after 6 months, compared to 54% initially (p=0.564). The need for preventive care decreased from 41% to 19% (p<0.005). The same observation was made for treatment need 5, where the reduction was from 14.6% to 5.9% (p=0.003). Prevalence of plaque was reduced from 86% to 81% post intervention. Conclusion: In conclusion, utilizing non-dental personnel to deliver appropriate education messages can improve the oral health of preschool children.
World health Organization. Information Series on School Health. Document 6; 1996. [http://www.who.int/hpr] (Accessed 10.06.2014).
Clifford H, Johnson NW, Brown C, Battistutta D: When can oral health education begin? Relative effectiveness of three oral health education strategies starting prepartum. Community Dental Health 2012, 29(2):162-7.
Harrison RL, Wong T: An oral health promotion program for an urban minority population of preschool children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2003, 31:392-99.
Plutzor K, Spencer AJ. Efficacy of an oral health promotion intervention in the prevention of early childhood caries. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2008; (36):335-346.
Poutanen RLS, Seppa L, Tolvanen M, Hausen H: Oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and family characteristics among Finnish school children with and without active initial caries lesions. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 2007, 65:87-96.
Ministry of Health Care and Nutrition, Sri Lanka: National Oral Health Survey Report. 2002/2003.
UNICEF Annual Report 2012 for Sri Lanka [http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Sri_Lanka_COAR_2012.pdf].
Denuwara HK: Oral Health Status among 3-5 year children attending preschools in Matale DDHS area. MSc Dissertation. University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka; 1995.
Shahim FN: Factors of risk to Early Childhood Caries in a selected district in Sri Lanka. MD Thesis. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2003.
Hetitiarachchi R: Dental caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and oral health knowledge and practices of their parents in Nugegoda MOH area. MSc Dissertation. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 2007.
Peterson PE, Tai B, Bian Z, Fan M: Effect of a school-based oral health education program in Wuhan City, Peoples Republic of China. International Dental Journal 2004(a), 54:33-41.
De Farias IA, De Araujo SGC, Ferreira MAF: A Health Education program for Brazilian Public School children: The Effects on Dental Health Practice and Oral Health Awareness. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 2009, 69 (4): 225-230.
Sri Wendari AH, Lambri SE, Van Palenstein Helderman WH: Effectiveness of Primary School-Based Oral Health Education in West Java, Indonesia. International Dental Journal 2008, 52:137-43.
Wenhall IML, Schroder U, Twetman S: Outcome of an oral health outreach program for preschool children in a low socio-economic multicultural area. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2008, 18:84-90.
Rothman KJ, Greenland S: Precision and validity in epidemiological Studies. In Modern Epidemiology. 2nd edition. 1998:115-134.
Abramson JH: Survey methods in Community Medicine, Epidemiological Research, Programme Evaluation. Clinical Trials. Churchill Livingston; 1999.
World health Organization: Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods. 4th edition. Geneva; 1997.
Konthasinghe PP: An evaluation of the outreach programs and some related aspects of the school dental service in Rathnapura district. MD Thesis. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; 1996.
Silness J, Loe H: Periodontal Disease in Pregnancy II. Correlation between Oral Hygiene and Periodontal Condition. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1964, 22:121-135.
Manson JD, Eley BM: Epidemiology of periodontal disease (the size of the problem). In Outline of Periodontics. 3rd edition; 1995:105-113.
Lo ECM, Schwarz E, Wong MCM: Arresting dentine caries in Chinese preschool children. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 1998, 80: 253-260.
Goldberg GP, Matsson L, Anderson H: Partial recording of gingivitis and dental plaque in children of different ages and in young adults. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1985, 13:44-46.
Ramfjord SP, Emslie RD, Greene JC, Held AJ, Waerhaug J: Epidemiological studies of periodontal disease [http://www.joponline.org/doi/pdf/10.1902/jop.19126.96.36.1992].
Department of Census and Statistics-Sri Lanka [http://www.statistics.gov.lk].
S Haynes: A perspective from the dental industry on minimum intervention dentistry. Australian Dental Journal 2013, 58 (1): 66–69.
Peterson PE, Kwan S: Evaluation of community- based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention-WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice. Community Dental Health 2004(b), 21:319-329.
Kesavan R: Evaluation of an intervention to enhance the quality of ante-natal care in the preventive health sector, through implementation of the Total Quality Management strategy at a selected Medical Officer of Health Division. MD Thesis. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka: 2009.
Wimalaratne SRU: A study to evaluate the hospital dental services with reference to several alternative parameters. MD Thesis. University of Colombo, Sri Lanka: 1997.
Ajithkrishan CG, Thanveer K, Sudheer H, Abhishek S: Impact of oral health education on oral health of 12 and 15-year-old school children of Vadodara city, Gujarat state. Journal of International Oral Health 2010, 2:15-20
Dhar V, Jain A, Van Duke TE, Kohli A: Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the school going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry 2007, 53:119-121.
- There are currently no refbacks.
|Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd|