Toothbrush Contamination a review of indian literature

Anup Nagaraj, Siddharth Acharya, Vikas Jeph, Gautam Biswas


Tooth brushing is one of the oldest methods of mechanical plaque control. This paper review the scientific literature of Indian studies conducted to evaluate toothbrush contamination and interventions used to reduce contamination of toothbrushes over the last decade.


Bacteria; Contamination;Oral Hygiene; Oral Health; Toothbrush


Matreja RB, Anand M, Shetty S, Samuel SR, Tho BS. Is Your Tooth Cleaner, Clean…??? Global Journal of Medical Research. 2014;13(2):18-23.

Saini R, Saini S. Microbial flora on toothbrush-At greater risk. Annals of Nigerian Medicine. 2010;4(1):31-2.

Cobb CM. The tooth brush as a cause of repeated infections of the mouth. The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 1920;183(9):263-4.

Warren DP, Goldschmidt MC, Thompson MB, Adler-Storthz K, Keene HJ. The effects of toothpastes on the residual microbial contamination of toothbrushes. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 2001;132(9):1241-5.

Saini R, Kulkarni V. Toothbrush: A Favorable Media for Bacterial Growth. International Journal of Experimental Dental Science. 2013;2(1):27-8.

Wetzel W-E, Schaumburg C, Ansari F, Kroeger T, Sziegoleit A. Microbial contamination of toothbrushes with different principles of filament anchoring. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 2005;136(6):758-65.

Frazelle MR, Munro CL. Toothbrush contamination: a review of the literature. Nursing research and practice. 2012;2012: Article ID 420630, 6 pages.

Swamy NK, Madihalli AU, MB P. Evaluation of streptococcus mutans contamination of tooth brushes and their decontamination using various disinfectants - An in vitro study. J Adv Oral Research 2011;2(3):23-30.

Pai V. Effect of a single-use toothbrush on plaque microflora. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2009;20(4):404-6.

Mehta A, Sequeira PS, Bhat G. Bacterial contamination and decontamination of toothbrushes after use. The New York state dental journal. 2007;73(3):20-2.

Karibasappa GN, Nagesh L, Sujatha BK. Assessment of microbial contamination of toothbrush head: an in vitro study. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2011;22(1):2-5.

D’Silva I, Kothari T, Shah R, Sahetya S. Toothbrush Disinfection-Is Your Toothbrush Making You Sick? Journal of the Indian Dental Association. 2007;1(09):88-91.

Chamele J, Bhat C, Saraf T, Jadhav A, Beg A, Jagtap C, et al. Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: An in vitro study. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2012;13(5):690-4.

Gujjari SK, Gujjari AK, Patel PV, Shubhashini PV. Comparative evaluation of ultraviolet and microwave sanitization techniques for toothbrush decontamination. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry. 2011;1(1):20-6.

Konidala U, Nuvvula S, Mohapatra A, Nirmala S. Efficacy of various disinfectants on microbially contaminated toothbrushes due to brushing. Contemporary clinical dentistry.2011;2(4):302-7.

Vvb S. Contamination of toothbrush at different time intervals and effectiveness of various disinfecting solutions in reducing the contamination of toothbrush. J Indian Sot Pedo Prev Dent September. 2002;20(3):81-5.

Balappanavar AY, Nagesh L, Ankola AV, Tangade PS, Kakodkar P, Varun S. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Disinfecting Solutions in Reducing the Contamination of the Toothbrush--A Comparative Study. Oral health & preventive dentistry. 2009;7(2):137-45.

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