Prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among orthodontics patients visiting a tertiary care hospital, pakistan

Hassan Rashid, Syed Sheeraz Hussain

Abstract


Aims and objectives: To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among orthodontics patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan using DASS scale. Materials and method: A cross sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 72 patients undergoing orthodontics treatment at the dental out patient clinic of Karachi Medical and Dental College. A self administered questionnaire with 42 questions was distributed among the participants to assess depression, anxiety and stress. Informed consent was taken from all participants prior to the survey. Result: The mean age of the sample population was 21.70 years. This study shows that 31.64%(24) patients are depressed, 36.8%(28) are anxious and 41.1%(35) are in stress. Conclusion: In conclusion, orthodontic patients are susceptible to depression, anxiety and stress. Early diagnosis helps the patient to initiate the therapy if needed.


Keywords


Anxiety; Depression; Orthodontics Patients; Stress

References


Bushra R, Aslam N. Prevalence of depression in Karachi, Pakistan. Oman Medical Journal. 2010;25(4).

Katon W, Schulberg H. Epidemiology of depression in primary care. General hospital psychiatry. 1992;14(4):237-47.

Schutter DJ, Van Honk J. A framework for targeting alternative brain regions with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 2005;30(2):81-2.

Zadeh ZF, Lateef M. Effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on Depressed Female University Students in Karachi. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;69:798-806.

Licinio J, Wong ML. The role of inflammatory mediators in the biology of major depression: central nervous system modulates the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress responsive systems and contribute to neurotoxicity and neuro-protein. Molec Psych. 1999;4:317-27.

Macroeconomics W. health: Investing in health for economic development. Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health Geneva: World Health Organization. 2001.

Akhund F, Khan M, Mohsin A, Ahmed SH. Psychiatric disorders in general practice. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 1987;37:2-4.

Ali B, Saud AM, Mohammad S, Lobo M, Midhet F, Ali S, et al. Psychiatric morbidity: prevalence, associated factors and significance. JPMA The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 1993;43(4):69-70.

Weissman MM, Klerman GL. Epidemiology of mental disorders: Emerging trends in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry. 1978;35(6):705-12.

Goldberg D, Bridges K. Screening for psychiatric illness in general practice: the general practitioner versus the screening questionnaire. The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 1987;37(294):15-8.

Goldberg D. Identifying psychiatric illness among general medical patients. British medical journal (Clinical research ed). 1985;291(6489):161-2.

Inam S, Saqib A, Alam E. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students of private university. J Pak Med Assoc. 2003;53(2).

Jadoon NA, Yaqoob R, Raza A, Shehzad MA, Choudhry ZS. Anxiety and depression among medical students: a cross-sectional study. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2010;60:699.

Dogar IA, Azeem MW, Kiran M, Hussain I, Mehmood K, Hina I. Depression and anxiety in cancer patients in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2009;25(5):734-7.

Alvi T, Assad F, Malik M. Anxiety and depression in burn patients. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC. 2008;21(1):137-41.

Husain N, Creed F, Tomenson B. Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychological medicine. 2000;30(2):395-402.

Mirza I, Jenkins R. Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review. Bmj. 2004;328(7443):794.

Yap AU, Tan KB, Prosthodont C, Chua EK, Tan HH. Depression and somatization in patients with temporomandibular disorders. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. 2002;88(5):479-84.

Rosal MC, Ockene IS, Ockene JK, Barrett SV, Ma Y, Hebert JR. A longitudinal study of students’ depression at one medical school. Academic Medicine. 1997;72(6):542-6.

Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence. Journal of health and social behavior. 1985:156-82.

Clark DC, Zeldow PB. Vicissitudes of depressed mood during four years of medical school. Jama. 1988;260(17):2521-8.

Zoccolillo M. Major depression during medical training. JAMA. 1988;260(17):2560-1.

Pepitone-Arreola-Rockwell F, Rockwell D, Core N. Fifty-two medical student suicides. The American journal of psychiatry. 1981;138(2):198-201.

Clark EJ, Rieker PP. Gender differences in relationships and stress of medical and law students. Academic Medicine. 1986;61(1):32-40.

Valko RJ, Clayton PJ. Depression in the internship. Diseases of the Nervous System. 1975;36:26-9.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
line
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd