Relationship between the age and salivary pH following sugar based and non-sugar based chewing gum usage among Nepalese school children

Manoj Humagain, Dinesh Rokaya, Supreeth S Manipal, Mangesh Bajracharya, Mamata Tamrakar, Sumita Upadhyaya

Abstract


Aim: To compare the effect of chewing gums (sugar-based and sugar-free) in salivary pH of school children. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 444 school children of 4 different schools, which were randomly chosen in Kathmandu. The students groups were divided into sugar-free group (n= 222) and sugar-based group (n=222 and three subgroups i.e., 4-7years, 8-11 years and 12-15 years of age. The pH was measured with the Universal pH indicator at 5 minutes before meal, 10 minutes after the meal and 20 minutes after the meal followed by the chewing of chewing gum. The differences between groups were analyzed by Student’s T-test at the 5% level of significance. Results: The mean pH 5 minutes before meal, 10 minutes after meal and 20 minutes after meal followed by chewing of chewing gum in 4-7 years group was 6.81, 4.58, 9.05 (Sugar-free) and 9.19 (sugar-based), in 8-11 years group 6.92, 4.65, 9.37 (Sugar-free) and 9.42 (sugar-based) and in 12-15 years group 7.17, 5.13, 8.52 (Sugar-free) and 9.11 (sugar-based). It shows that, though after using chewing gums, the pH of saliva raised but statistically, there was no significant difference (p=0.061) between sugar-free and sugar-based chewing gum in different age groups. Conclusion:  Even though, usage of chewing gums increased the salivary flow, there was no significant difference in different age groups after chewing sugar-free and sugar-based gum. So, both types of chewing gums may be used. 


Keywords


Dental Caries; Sugar based; Sugar free; Chewing gum; pH of saliva

References


Cristina Nuca, C. A. Clinical study regarding theinfluence of the sugared and sugar free chewinggum on the salivary pH and flow. OHDMBSC,III.2004.

Szöke J, Banoczy J, Proskin H. Effect of after-meal sucrose-free gum-chewing on clinical caries. Journal of dental research. 2001;80(8):1725-9.

Hoerman K, Gasior E, Zibell S, Record D, Flowerdew G. Effect of gum chewing on plaque accumulation. The Journal of clinical dentistry. 1990;2(1):17.

Mickenautsch S, Leal SC, Yengopal V, Bezerra AC, Cruvinel V. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries: a systematic review. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2007;15(2):83-8.

Hujoel P, Mäkinen K, Bennett C, Isotupa K, Isokangas P, Allen P, et al. The optimum time to initiate habitual xylitol gum-chewing for obtaining long-term caries prevention. Journal of Dental Research. 1999;78(3):797-803.

Makinen K, Bennett C, Hujoel P, Isokangas P, Isotupa K, Pape H, et al. Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: a 40-month cohort study. Journal of Dental Research. 1995;74(12):1904-13.

Dawes C, Macpherson L. Effects of nine different chewing-gums and lozenges on salivary flow rate and pH. Caries research. 1992;26(3):176-82.

Topaloglu-Ak A, Eden E, Frencken J. Managing dental caries in children in Turkey-a discussion paper. BMC Oral Health. 2009;9(1):32.

Jensen M, Wefel J. Human plaque pH responses to meals and the effects of chewing gum. British dental journal. 1989;167(6):204-8.

Imfeld T. Chewing gum facts and fiction: a review of gum-chewing and oral health. Critical reviews in oral biology & medicine. 1999;10(3):405-19.

Holgerson PL, Sjöström I, Stecksen‐Blicks C, Twetman S. Dental plaque formation and salivary mutans streptococci in schoolchildren after use of xylitol‐containing chewing gum. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2007;17(2):79-85.

Karami-Nogourani M, Kowsari-Isfahan R, Hosseini-Beheshti M. The effect of chewing gum’s flavor on salivary flow rate and pH. Dental research journal. 2011;8(Suppl1):S71.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
line
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd