Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Periodontics: A Review

Alok Sharma, Swati Sharma


Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. This article focuses on the classification of antioxidants and the link between oxidative stress and periodontal disease.



Oxidative Stress;Antioxidants;Periodontitis


Genco R, Kornman K, Williams R, Offenbacher S, Zambon J, Ishikawa I, et al. Consensus report periodontal diseases: pathogenesis and microbial factors. Ann Periodontol. 1996;1(1):926-32.

Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Microbial etiological agents of destructive periodontal diseases. Periodontology 2000. 1994;5:78-111.

Lamster IB, Novak MJ. Host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine.1992;3 (1):31-60.

Dennison DK, Dyke TE. The acute inflammatory response and the role of phagocytic cells in periodontal health and disease. Periodontology 2000. 1997;14(1):54-78.

Roos D, van Bruggen R, Meischl C. Oxidative killing of microbes by neutrophils. Microbes and Infection. 2003;5(14):1307-15.

Waddington R, Moseley R, Embery G. Periodontal Disease Mechanisms: Reactive oxygen species: a potential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Oral Diseases. 2000;6(3):138-51.

Chapple ILC, Matthews JB. The role of reactive oxygen and antioxidant species in periodontal tissue destruction. Periodontology2000. 2007; 43 (1):160-232.

Weighardt H, Feterowski C, Veit M, Rump M, Wagner H, Holzmann B. Increased resistance against acute polymicrobial sepsis in mice challenged with immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is related to an enhanced innate effector cell response. The Journal of Immunology. 2000;165(8):4537-43.

Tsai C, Chen H, Chen S, Ho Y, Ho K, Wu Y, et al. Lipid peroxidation: a possible role in the induction and progression of chronic periodontitis. Journal of Periodontal Research. 2005;40(5):378-84.

Takane M, Sugano N, Iwasaki H, Iwano Y, Shimizu N, Ito K. New biomarker evidence of oxidative DNA damage in whole saliva from clinically healthy and periodontally diseased individuals. Journal of Periodontology. 2002; 73(5):551-4.

Whyte G, Seymour GJ, Cheung K, Robinson MF. Chemiluminescence of peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes from adult periodontitis patients. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1989;16(2):69-74.

Cao.C, Smith.Q. Crevicular fluid myeloperoxidase at healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis sites. Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 1989;16(1):17-20.

Battino M, Bullon P, Wilson M, Newman H. Oxidative injury and inflammatory periodontal diseases: the challenge of anti-oxidants to free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine. 1999; 10(4):458-76.

Agnihotri R, Pandurang P, Kamath SU, Goyal R, Ballal S, Shanbhogue AY, et al. Association of cigarette smoking with superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in subjects with chronic periodontitis. Journal of Periodontology. 2009; 80(4):657-62.

Wanasundara P, Shahidi F. Antioxidants: Science, technology, and applications: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005. Available from:

Nishida M, Grossi SG, Dunford RG, Ho AW, Trevisan M, Genco RJ. Dietary vitamin C and the risk for periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontology. 2000;71(8):1215-23.

Hanioka T, Tanaka M, Ojima M, Shizukuishi S, Folkers K. Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q10 on adult periodontitis. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 1994;15:s241-s8.

Gutiérrez-Venegas G, Jiménez-Estrada M, Maldonado S. The effect of flavonoids on transduction mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide-treated human gingival fibroblasts. International Immunopharmacology. 2007;7(9):1199-210.

Rai B, Jain R, Anand S, Kharb S. Total Salivary Glutathione Levels: Periodontitis in Smoker and non-Smoker. The Internet Journal of Laboratory Medicine [Internet]. 2009; 3(2). Available from:

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd