The effect of traumatic dental injuries on the drooling of saliva in children with cerebral palsy

Sharat Chandra Pani, Samindra Mohan Sinha


Background: Drooling of saliva is a manifestation of abnormal function seen in many forms of Cerebral Palsy. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and severity of drooling of saliva and its relationship to traumatic dental injuries in children with cerebral palsy. Materials and Method: The sample consisted of 298 children with a mean age 9.6 + 2.8 yrs. Results: It was found that children who had traumatic dental injuries had a greater severity of drooling. Treating the traumatic dental injuries showed a reduced severity of drooling in children having mixed and permanent dentition but not in the primary dentition. Conclusion: The study results concludes that traumatic dental injuries may be either a consequence or an accompanying condition to the drooling of saliva in individuals with cerebral palsy.


Traumatic Dental Injury; Drooling of Saliva; Cerebral Palsy; Dental Trauma


Hegde AM, Shetty YR, Pani SC. Drooling of saliva and its effect on the oral health status of children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2008;32(3):235-8.

Rosenstein SN. Dentistry in cerebral palsy and related handicapping conditions. Thomas CC, editor: Springfield Il; 1978.

Hussein I, Kershaw A, Tahmassebi J, Fayle S. The management of drooling in children and patients with mental and physical disabilities: a literature review. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1998;8(1):3-11.

Chandra Pani S, Hegde AM. Functional Appliance Therapy to Control Drooling: A Case of A Child With Mental Retardation. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2007;31(4):284-6.

Blasco PA, Allaire JH. Drooling in the developmental disabled: management practices and recommendations. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 1992;34(10):849-62.

Makhani J. Dribbling of saliva in children with cerebral palsy and its management. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1974;41(8):272-7.

Tahmassebi J. Prevalence of drooling in children with cerebral palsy attending special schools. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2003;45(9):613-7.

Van De Heyning P, Marquet J, Creten W. Drooling in children with cerebral palsy. Acta oto-rhino-laryngologica belgica. 1980;34(6):691.

Hegde AM, Pani SC. Drooling of saliva in children with cerebral palsy—etiology, prevalence, and relationship to salivary flow rate in an Indian population. Special Care in Dentistry. 2009;29(4):163-8.

Tahmassebi J, Curzon M. The cause of drooling in children with cerebral palsy–hypersalivation or swallowing defect? International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2003;13(2):106-11.

Blasco PA. Management of drooling: 10 years after the Consortium on Drooling, 1990. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2002;44(11):778-81.

Meningaud J-P, Pitak-Arnnop P, Chikhani L, Bertrand J-C. Drooling of saliva: a review of the etiology and management options. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 2006;101(1):48-57.

Saha SG, Saha MK. Management of a fractured tooth by fragment reattachment a case report. International Journal of Dental Clinics. 2010;2(2).

Holan G, Peretz B, Efrat J, Shapira Y. Traumatic injuries to the teeth in young individuals with cerebral palsy. Dental Traumatology. 2005;21(2):65-9.

Botti Rodrigues dos Santos MT, Souza CBC. Traumatic dental injuries in individuals with cerebral palsy. Dental Traumatology. 2009;25(3):290-4.

De Moraes Costa MMT, Afonso RL, Ruviére DB, Aguiar SMHCÁ. Prevalence of dental trauma in patients with cerebral palsy. Special Care in Dentistry. 2008;28(2):61-4.

Guare RdO, Ciampioni AL. Prevalence of periodontal disease in the primary dentition of children with cerebral palsy. Journal of dentistry for children. 2004;71(1):27-32.

De C, Marcela Aparecida Ferreira A, José Leopoldo F. Untreated dental caries in children with cerebral palsy in the Brazilian context. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2008;18(2):131-8.

Franklin D, Luther F, Curzon M. The prevalence of malocclusion in children with cerebral palsy. The European Journal of Orthodontics. 1996;18(6):637-43.

Pope J, Curzon M. The dental status of cerebral palsied children. Pediatric dentistry. 1991;13(3):156.

Burg JJ, Jongerius PH, Hulst K, Limbeek J, Rotteveel JJ. Drooling in children with cerebral palsy: effect of salivary flow reduction on daily life and care. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2006;48(2):103-7.

Andreasen J. Etiology and pathogenesis of traumatic dental injuries A clinical study of 1,298 cases. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 1970;78(1‐4):329-42.

Cruickshank WM. A study of the relation of physical disability to social adjustment. The American journal of occupational therapy: official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association. 1952;6(3):100.

Palisano RJ, Rosenbaum P, Bartlett D, Livingston MH. Content validity of the expanded and revised Gross Motor Function Classification System. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008;50(10):744-50.

Senner JE, Logemann J, Zecker S, Gaebler‐Spira D. Drooling, saliva production, and swallowing in cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2007;46(12):801-6.

Costa J, Rocha M, Ferreira J, Evangelista T, Coelho M, de Carvalho M. Botulinum toxin type-B improves sialorrhea and quality of life in bulbaronset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Journal of neurology. 2008;255(4):545-50.

Ilma de Souza Cortes M, Marcenes W, Sheiham A. Impact of traumatic injuries to the permanent teeth on the oral health‐related quality of life in 12–14‐year‐old children. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. 2002;30(3):193-8.

Santos M, Ferreira M, Leite M, Guaré R. Salivary parameters in Brazilian individuals with cerebral palsy who drool. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2011;37(3):404-9.

Ray SA, Bundy AC, Nelson DL. Decreasing drooling through techniques to facilitate mouth closure. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1983;37(11):749-53.

Iammatteo PA, Trombly C, Luecke L. The effect of mouth closure on drooling and speech. The American journal of occupational therapy. 1990;44(8):686-91.

Lespargot A, Langevin MF, Muller S, Guillemont S. Swallowing disturbances associated with drooling in cerebral‐palsied children. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 1993;35(4):298-304.

Sochaniwskyj A, Koheil R, Bablich K, Milner M, Kenny D. Oral motor functioning, frequency of swallowing and drooling in normal children and in children with cerebral palsy. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 1986;67(12):866.

Nunn J. Drooling: review of the literature and proposals for management. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. 2001;27(9):735-43.

Chigira A, Omoto K, Mukai Y, Kaneko Y. Lip closing pressure in disabled children: a comparison with normal children. Dysphagia. 1994;9(3):193-8.

Schwartz S, Gisel EG, Clarke D, Haberfellner H. Association of occlusion with eating efficiency in children with cerebral palsy and moderate eating impairment. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children. 2003;70(1):33-9.

Weiss-Lambrou R, Tétreault S, Dudley J. The relationship between oral sensation and drooling in persons with cerebral palsy. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 1989;43(3):155-61.

Rai S, Munshi A. Traumatic injuries to the anterior teeth among South Kanara school children: A prevalence study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 1998;16(2):44-51.

Khan NA, Qazi HS, Maxood A, Khan A, Abbas I. Traumatic injuries of the permanent maxillory incisors at Dental Department, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad: a retrospective study. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008;20(3):84-7.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd