Association between smoking and Intra-oral distribution of dental plaque pattern in a Pakistan population

Muhammad Nadeem, Sania Arshad, Muhammad Abid


Objective: To assess the incidence and intraoral distribution of dental plaque pattern and its association with smoking habits in Pakistan population. Material and methods: A cross sectional study conducted during December 2009 in Liaquat College of Medicine & Dentistry (L.C.M.D). The study population involved 388 adult subjects consulting for dental checkups in a dental camp arranged in L.C.M.D. The total adult who came to the Out Patient Department (OPD) was 425 and 388 (91%) were participated in the study. A total of eight different sites of dentition were examined for the presence of dental plaque accumulation in each individual (3104 sites). Demographic and behavioral information including several dimensions of smoking habits was collected by questionnaire. Main outcome measures: Consecutive sampling was conducted and individuals were allocated into groups on the basis of their smoking status (103 smokers and 285 non-smokers), the dental plaque accumulated sites were analyzed by contributing factors such as smoking status, duration of smoking in years, number and type of cigarettes per day. Results: Smoking was significantly associated with dental plaque accumulation, particularly significant in smokers on the lower anterior lingual and in non-smokers on upper buccal site was highly affected. Conclusions:  More number of dental plaque accumulated sites was found in relation to the degree, duration of smoking and type of cigarettes.


Smoking; Pakistani Population; Dental Plaque


Koparal E, Tutuncu R. Investigation of Plaque Formation by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Turkish Journal Of Medical Sciences. 2000;30(2):119-24.

Furuichi Y, Lindhe J, Ramberg P, Volpe AR. Patterns of de novo plaque formation in the human dentition. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2005;19(6):423-33.

Torrungruang K, Tamsailom S, Rojanasomsith K, Sutdhibhisal S, Nisapakultorn K, Vanichjakvong O, et al. Risk indicators of periodontal disease in older Thai adults. Journal of periodontology. 2005;76(4):558-65.

Machuca G, Rosales I, Lacalle JR, Machuca C, Bullón P. Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal status of healthy young adults. Journal of periodontology. 2000;71(1):73-8.

Baljoon M, Natto S, Bergstrom J. The association of smoking with vertical periodontal bone loss. Journal of periodontology. 2004;75(6):844-51.

Gonzalez Y, De Nardin A, Grossi S, Machtei E, Genco R, De Nardin E. Serum cotinine levels, smoking, and periodontal attachment loss. Journal of dental research. 1996;75(2):796-802.

Tomar SL, Asma S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: findings from NHANES III. Journal of periodontology. 2000;71(5):743-51.

Jacob V, Vellappally S, Smejkalova J. The influence of cigarette smoking on various aspects of periodontal health. Acta Medica-Hradec Kralove. 2007;50(1):3.

Winn DM. Tobacco use and oral disease. Journal of dental education. 2001;65(4):306-12.

Nadeem M, Shafique R, Yaldram A, López R. Intraoral distribution of oral melanosis and cigarette smoking in a Pakistan population. International Journal of Dental Clinics. 2011;3(1).

Basnaker M. P53 Gene Expression in Oral Smears of Tobacco Chewers. International Journal of Dental Clinics. 2010;2(1).

Nwhator SO, Winfunke-Savage K, Ayanbadejo P, Jeboda SO. Smokers' melanosis in a Nigerian population: a preliminary study. The journal of contemporary dental practice. 2007;8(5):68.

Sharda A, Sharda J. Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products used among the population of Udaipur, India. International Journal of Dental Clinics. 2010;2(2).

Chaudhary H, Shetty S, Sharda AJ, Agarwal AA, Singh KP. Effect of smoking status in support to anti-smoking legislation among medical and dental professionals in an Indian City-a Cross Sectional Study. International Journal of Dental Clinics. 2010;2(4).

Johnson GK, Slach NA. Impact of tobacco use on periodontal status. Journal of Dental Education. 2001;65(4):313-21.

Darby I, Hodge P, Riggio M, Kinane D. Clinical and microbiological effect of scaling and root planing in smoker and non‐smoker chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients. Journal of clinical periodontology. 2005;32(2):200-6.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Index Copernicus Index Copernicus Google Scholar NISCAIR OpenJGateDOAJUlrichsWeb
System Developed By Stanford University Arizona State University Simon Fraser University Canadian Centre For Studies In Publishing University of British Columbia - Faculty of Education
W3C XHTML v1.0 Verified W3C verified Valid CSS v2.1 PHP5 Enabled CopyScape Protected Made On Mac Apache Enabled MySQL Powered
Published by Celesta Software Pvt Ltd