Association between smoking and Intra-oral distribution of dental plaque pattern in a Pakistan population

Muhammad Nadeem, Sania Arshad, Muhammad Abid

Abstract


Objective: To assess the incidence and intraoral distribution of dental plaque pattern and its association with smoking habits in Pakistan population. Material and methods: A cross sectional study conducted during December 2009 in Liaquat College of Medicine & Dentistry (L.C.M.D). The study population involved 388 adult subjects consulting for dental checkups in a dental camp arranged in L.C.M.D. The total adult who came to the Out Patient Department (OPD) was 425 and 388 (91%) were participated in the study. A total of eight different sites of dentition were examined for the presence of dental plaque accumulation in each individual (3104 sites). Demographic and behavioral information including several dimensions of smoking habits was collected by questionnaire. Main outcome measures: Consecutive sampling was conducted and individuals were allocated into groups on the basis of their smoking status (103 smokers and 285 non-smokers), the dental plaque accumulated sites were analyzed by contributing factors such as smoking status, duration of smoking in years, number and type of cigarettes per day. Results: Smoking was significantly associated with dental plaque accumulation, particularly significant in smokers on the lower anterior lingual and in non-smokers on upper buccal site was highly affected. Conclusions:  More number of dental plaque accumulated sites was found in relation to the degree, duration of smoking and type of cigarettes.


Keywords


Smoking; Pakistani Population; Dental Plaque

References


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